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Pyramids of Giza in 3D

Pyramiden von Gizeh in 3D

The pyramids of Giza are the only surviving of the seven wonders of the ancient world. They are among the best-known and oldest surviving buildings of humanity. The age and purpose of the pyramids is scientifically controversial. There is agreement that the pyramids are at least 4500 years old. The pyramids are located on the western edge of the Nile Valley at the point where the desert begins. On the site are two large pyramids, the Cheops and the Chephren, a medium-sized pyramid, the Mykerinos, and six small pyramids. Surrounded by the pyramids of numerous temples and tombs, which have not been fully excavated.


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Pyramiden von Gizeh

The Pyramiden Areal is located directly on the outskirts of the metropolis of Giza. From there you have a generous view of the city.

Gizeh

 

The Pyramid of Cheops

The Pyramid of Cheops is the largest of the three pyramids of Giza and is therefore known as the "Great Pyramid". Originally the Pyramid of Cheops was 146 meters high and completely clad in polished limestone. Now the pyramid has a size of 138 meters, which was the tallest building in the world until the 19th century. The name of the pyramid is only due to a graffiti discovered inside one of the relief chambers. For this reason, it is believed that the other pyramids were built by the son of Chephren and the grandson of Mykerinos.

Cheops-Pyramide

At the foot of the pyramid are still some stones left over which served to disguise the building. In the first levels of the pyramid you have installed the biggest stones that are about the size of a fridge.

Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail

The Pyramid of Cheops has been designed most accurately by the construction. It is particularly noteworthy that each stone has a different size and was not always processed at right angles. By this construction, a high stability could be ensured, which can withstand earthquakes.

Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail

Cheops-Pyramide

In the higher layers, the blocks are getting smaller. In the middle and upper layers, the stones weigh only 100-200 kilos. Stones of this size can easily be transported via scaffolding and cranes. There was enough wood at that time. The Nile delta was heavily forested at that time and is only a short distance from the pyramids.

Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail
Cheops-Pyramide Detail

On the south side of the pyramid they tried to find an entrance by blowing up, but without success.

Cheops-Pyramide

On the north side of the pyramid of Cheops is the entrance. From there you get to the three "burial chambers". The interior of the pyramid is another puzzle. No hieroglyphs or artifacts were found. Very unusual for Egyptian burial chambers. The interior design is very narrow and low so you can not always walk upright there.

Cheops-Pyramide Eingang

Immediately next to the pyramid, two old wooden boats were discovered and buried there. The empty pit shows how big the boat was.

Cheops-Pyramide

 

The mortuary temple

From the mortuary temple, which is located next to the pyramid of Cheops, only the foundations can be found. But they have it all. How the stone blocks have been processed is still unclear. Many stones look like they've been cut with modern diamond saw blades.

Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide

Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide
Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide
Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide
Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide
Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide
Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide

Especially on this stone you can see clear traces of cuts. What tools this was used with is still unclear.

Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide

 

The East Cemetery

Next to the pyramid of Cheops is the East Cemetery. There are three small pyramids, numerous temples and shafts that lead deep into the earth. The shafts are square and have 1.5 meters side length which are secured with an iron grid. The excavations are still ongoing, so that in the near future you will make many more discoveries.

Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide
Ostfriedhof an der Cheops-Pyramide

At the Ostfriedhof is a reconstruction of the Pyramidion, which is to represent the top of the pyramid.

Totentempel an der Cheops-Pyramide

 

The Khafre pyramid

The Khafre pyramid is the second highest of the pyramids of Giza. Because of the steeper inclination angle and the slightly higher ground, it appears higher than the Pyramid of Cheops. The original height was 143 meters. Due to the decay, the pyramid is only 136 meters high. The special feature of the Chephren pyramid is that the top still has the original limestone cladding. The whole interior of the pyramid has not yet been explored. One has only discovered a tunnel leading to a small "burial chamber" which is located at the foundation.

Chephren-Pyramide

At the foot of the pyramid of Chephren lie many granite stones that probably served for the lower cladding of the pyramid.

Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail

As in the case of the Pyramid of Cheops, quite large stones were used in the lower levels. But as soon as it gets higher and higher, the building blocks get smaller and smaller. Some granite boulders have an unusual shape, so they can not fit in as a trim element of the pyramid. Especially the octagonal stone is a mystery.

Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail

The entrance of the pyramid of Chephren can be easily reached by a staircase, which is well hidden. At the foot of the pyramid you have laid some red granite stones. Whether they really belong is controversial.

Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail

Here could be an entrance to the pyramid. And finally, a close-up of the top of the Chephren pyramid. Noteworthy are the well-preserved extremely sharp edges.

Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail

 

The Khafre Temple

Immediately next to the pyramid of Chephren is a temple complex, which was built with large limestone and granite blocks. Only the foundations and some foundations of the temple complex can be seen.

Khafre-Tempel

Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail
Chephren-Pyramide Detail

 

The big ditch

On the pyramid area there are many smaller shafts that lead deep into the earth. These are so deep you can not see the ground. The largest shaft or trench is located between the Sphinx and the Chephren pyramid. Here you have freed the first 20 meters from the sand. How deep this ditch will go down is still unclear. So far only one well has been almost completely excavated, which unfortunately is not publicly accessible. This shaft leads down three levels of 60 meters, where an empty "burial chamber" was discovered. It is therefore assumed that in the pyramid area far below the ground is a tunnel system.

Der große Graben
Der große Graben

 

Der Südfriedhof

The South Cemetery looks like a small town. Some houses have been reconstructed. However, most of it is still buried in the sand.

Südfriedhof

Südfriedhof
Südfriedhof
Südfriedhof
Südfriedhof

 

The Mykerinos Pyramid

The smallest of the three pyramids is the Mykerinos pyramid and was originally 65 meters high. The pyramid is surrounded by three smaller stepped pyramids and a temple. The upper part of the pyramid was covered with limestone slabs. However, the lower 16 layers are made of granite slabs, which can still be seen.

Mykerinos-Pyramide

These granite slabs are still so well preserved because they used to lie under a layer of sand that was only exposed in the last century.

Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail

So far, the interior design of the Mykerinos pyramid is completely unknown. On the north side you have tried to find an entrance. But without success. There is only a small tunnel that leads below the pyramid to a "burial chamber".

Mykerinos-Pyramide

Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail
Mykerinos-Pyramide Detail

 

The sphinx

This monument is by far the most famous and largest sphinx in the world. It represents a lying lion with a human head. Previously, only the head sticking out of the sand as in 1885, the first excavations have begun, you discover the entire body and an adjacent temple complex of gigantic stone blocks.

Sphinx

Sphinx
Sphinx

Sphinx

The pyramid area is still full of mystery. There are hardly any buildings that are scientifically as controversial as the pyramids. Maybe we will find out if further excavations are done. The problem for further excavations is that the pyramid area silt up very quickly. It would take only fifty years for all temples and Sphinx's body to be buried under sand dunes.